- 1 Platform
- 2 Shared features of platforms
- 3 Platformisation
- 4 Platform power
- 5 Platforms, tracking, privacy
- 6 Different approaches to data
- 7 References
“Digital infrastructures that facilitate and shape personalised interactions among end users and complementors, organised through the systematic collection, algorithmic processing, monetisation, and circulation of data” (Poell et al., 2019, p. 3).
”Platform” describes semantically a cut-out of a complex digital system – the cut-out that users see from this technical infrastructure. However, think about a train station: What would you learn about mobility by only looking at it from the platform? On the platform you might see a train arriving and you would either step in or not. Usually you rely on those arranging that trains arrive and depart to the destination you were choosing. You might also learn about travelling in a wagon.
In order to understand more holistically how platforms in a train station work, we could float a little bit higher towards the ceiling of the hall. Then we would perceive rail tracks, other platforms and different trains. We would see the passengers following each other, wonder about witnessing a choreography without a choreographer giving explicit commands. We would also see some people in uniforms, keeping the system running. They represent the system engineers’ perspective. We would see where the tracks lead, who was allowed to enter and who not, which might stand for a social perspective.
Using the technical definition of platforms above, we surmise that digital platforms are characterised by these principles:
1. Different personalised interactions
- Social media: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram are social media platforms, aiming to connect people and facilitate exchange
- Matching and exchanging goods: accommodation (AirBnB), a car ride (Uber), work (Amazon Mechanical Turk) or a product (Amazon Marketplace or eBay)
- Share content (Flickr), develop content together (like maps via OpenStreetMap or 3D models on Thingiverse)
- Collaboration (learning platforms, the different collaborative Google services or project management software)
- Finance (crowdfunding platforms)
- Organizing social and public services, for instance in public administration or in the health system
There are many more examples that could be added to the list of different platforms, and it would still be incomplete.
Extracting personal data from user interaction and processing it digitally.
- Performance data
- Identity data
- Preferences, values, political opinions
- Income, address
Turning data into (added) value.
- Offering tailor-made advertisement
- Selling the data to others (like political parties, companies, advertisement companies)
- Developing other business models based on the merging of data on different platforms
- Payments by users (for example a fee or percentage of each financial transaction)
4. Other added value
- Provision of a better service (by applying the service according to the information received through user data)
- State surveillance (gaining insight in movement, opinion, behaviour of citizen(s))
- Scientific insight
- Optimising public infrastructure (i.e., through anonymised traffic data derived by navigation platforms, information about the increase of illnesses in a region derived by smart watch data)
5. Circulation of data
- Data is not depletable
- It can be reused, merged, reinterpreted
When platforms which are used by many people are connecting and speak to each other we might call this the platformisation of the Internet. Since most platforms are driven by a monetary purpose, we could say that the platform ecosystem is shaped by a platform economy.
Platform is a roof term describing digital infrastructures with different purposes and the ways they work. In order to understand each better, we might distinguish them regarding the quality of interaction they facilitate and also to what extent they are bound to location.
In the employment sector, several platforms have challenged traditional working relations. AirBnB and Booking.com are disrupting the accommodation sector. Social media platforms are challenging old media: “Over four in ten Europeans now say they use online social networks every day” (EUC-EB, 2018, p. 17). In the educational field, platforms gain importance, for instance in education to learn analytics and credentialing.
Job offerings to an un-defined group of interested persons through a platform.
Mediation of jobs that might be fulfilled independent from the location, often a digital product.
Employment limited to one task (gig) that might be fulfilled dependent from a location (in example a physical service or creating a product).
In a platform economy, platforms are not innocent intermediaries just there to facilitate services. Similar to a seminar room: the facilitators have many opportunities to create the atmosphere, control the processes or to influence the outcome of the process. Platform power is the possibility of the platform owners to set the rules for the interaction unilaterally and to influence the behaviour during the interaction.
Examples of platform work include:
working process, media consumption, activity, relations
Collection and analysis of data
GPS/location, app activity, feedback, shopping history, visited articles, reactions, personal network and other unique personal data
offering on a worker’s to-do-list, rating, articles/posts presented to the user or proposed to other members
Automated messaging and nudging
Real time performance feedback, style of language, gamification
Architecture and design of the platform
What offers appear and how, transparency, monetizing collected personal data unilaterally (reselling it or using it for individualised advertisement), tying users
(Ivanova et al. 2018, p. 7 f.)
Platforms, tracking, privacy
Datafication relies on tracking. There are reasons for this, which are often described in legalese as legitimate purposes. However, users are often not aware the purposes and what kind of personal data exactly is shared. These websites introduce tracking practices and how to protect yourself if necessary.
- Read more: Privacy Protection
Different approaches to data
Since the biggest platforms also belong to the most valuable companies globally, they shape our perceptions of how platforms act. In reality, the platform ecosystem is more diverse. The Internet is developing thanks to the diversity and competition of different actors. Proprietary data-economic models represented by the huge global platforms stand beside other ones, following the idea of open and free software and standards. We need to understand how local platforms exist, how small platforms come up with innovation and also how alternative economic models for platforms work.
Education especially has gained from open information, free services and also from the engagement of volunteers and entrepreneurs for this “other” internet. Open Data and knowledge is becoming increasingly important for the digital knowledge society. OpenStreetmap, Wikipedia or public open data are a huge potential for education. Access to information or content is a condition for civil engagement and for access to education. Open access models in the research field give researchers, but also other citizens, access to updated knowledge – and help to share their own expertise across the boundaries of a discipline or context. Open Educational Resources are not only legalising the Internet’s copy culture, they also give learners and educators access to materials and the freedom to choose.
Shouldn’t we support those developers and their products more?
- Illustration: Felix Kumpfe/Atelier Hurra
- Greef, S., Schroeder, W., Akel, A., Berzel, A., D'Antonio, O., Kiepe, L., ... Sperling, H. J. (2017). Plattformökonomie und Crowdworking: eine Analyse der Strategien und Positionen zentraler Akteure. (Forschungsbericht / Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, FB500). Berlin: Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales; Universität Kassel, FB 05 Gesellschaftswissenschaften, Fachgebiet Politisches System der BRD - Staatlichkeit im Wandel. https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-55503-3
- Poell, T. & Nieborg, D. & van Dijck, J. (2019). Platformisation. Internet Policy Review, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2019.4.1425
- European Commission (EUC-EB 2018). Standard Eurobarometer 88: “Media Use in the European Union” Report. https://doi.org/10.2775/116707
- Ivanova, M; Bronowicka, J.; Kocher, E.; Degner, A (2018). The App as a Boss? Control and Autonomy in Application-Based Management. Arbeit | Grenze | Fluss – Work in Progress interdisziplinärer Arbeitsforschung Nr. 2, Frankfurt (Oder), Viadrina. https://doi.org/10.11584/Arbeit-Grenze-Fluss.
Editor of Competendo. Coordinator of the project DIGIT-AL Digital Transformation in Adult Learning for Active Citizenship. Secretary of the DARE network. Topics: active citizenship, civil society, digital transformation, non-formal and lifelong learning, capacity building. Blogs here: Blog: Civil Resilience. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Digital Transformation in Adult Learning for Active Citizenship
This text was published in the frame of the project DIGIT-AL - Digital Transformation Adult Learning for Active Citizenship.