Knowledge skills and competencies gained through non-formal and informal education needs to be recognized in the society. Or in other words: The learning outcome needs to be made visible for the learning person and its environment. Although a lot of outcomes and developments in terms of a gain of competences are not easily to be certified in a formal way, facilitators might use tools that document processes and personal developments.
“Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do after completion of learning.”
Learning outcome includes skills, knowledge and attitudes.
Identification and Validation
EU distincts between the terms of identification and validation in order to describe the learning outcome. 
- Makes the individual’s learnings and outcomes in a general way visible
- Rather in a less formal way
- Making use of different and free forms of description, assessment and documentation
- The confirmation by a competent body
- that learning outcomes have been assessed
- against predefined criteria
- compliant with the requirements of a validation standard.
- Validation typically leads to certification.
Your Perspective on Identification and Validation
In all learning settings we are able to describe competency levels and the specific mixture of competences required for concrete tasks. This description must go beayond formal grades in order to cover the broad aspects of competencies. The focus should be set on applicability. Especially in non-formal education educational providers and educators need to think beyond certification, as the latter is often not available: validation is in consequence connected with a credible authority in form of a formal learning provider.
The more common approach will be identification and credible and evidence-based description of competency levels and competency development: Describing Competency Development
Competetence Frameworks as an orientation
One approach promoted by European Union is following the concept of their EU Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. The eight key competences are the framework and in addition there are some tools for assessding and describing these:
Portfolio for youth leaders
European Skills Passport
But there are as well other relevant competence frameworks, one very relevant in the field of citizenship education is Council of Europe's "Competencies for Democratic Culture". Furthermore, EU has developed specific competence sets for some of their key competences. Especially here to mention are "DigComp" for digital competence and "EntreComp" for entrepreneurship competence.
European Qualification Framework
On a systemic level there is as well another important European framework. The European Qualification Framework (EQR) and the subordinated EU member state's national qualification frameworks seek to gain more compatibility between the different national education systems. The main challenge is here to describe vocational profiles and educational outcome for a broad range of educational fields. Therefore the competency model is elaborated enough to offer a profound description of the concrete validations as a basis for certification and documentation of the gain of knowledge and skills. 
Methodologically member states agreed on the EQF in 2008, which is concretized through every member state with a national qualification framework.  On 8 levels a definition for the needed knowledge, skills and competencies was defined, from level one – “basic knowledge” – up to level 8 –“knowledge at the most advanced frontier of a field of work or study and at the interface between fields”. The framework provides therefore "benchmarks for qualification levels across Europe and encourage the embedding of validation systems with formal qualifications system" Member states develop their national qualification frameworks like in Germany through a Working Group on national level and a coordination group of Länder and federal government.
Knowledge skills and competencies as learning outcome need to be made visible for the learning person and its environment. However learning outcome has in informal and non-formal education another nature than in a lot of formal educational institutions and programs. Therefore, training providers need to develop alternative ways of describing and assessing the developments and qualities of their learner.
Competence description entails how persons can apply knowledge, skills and attitudes after learning. Therefore, description of learning outcome is a communication intrument with the learner and with third persons. Furthermore, a certificate or whatever method one uses informs about the facilitators and their organization, its values and their capacities.
Ask participants to visualize their back activities like a project or the activity within a longer learning process. The vizualition will be made in form of a learning curve. The horizontal axis describes time, the vertical axis describes the feeling associated with the activity/project and the learning outcome.
Participants of a training or seminar document the aspects of a meeting that are most essential for their future activities. They remember these aspects and gain motivation after the meeting.
The method combines evaluation of the past activities with the future perspectives and the opportunities zhat appear through the gain of competences as a result of project work.
Key Competencies are abilities learners might use in a broad range of social contexts - in social participation, as employees, in their way to express their culture or for their personal development. This task helps teams and organizations to identify their key competency profile including the competencies learners, visitors or participants might learn during their activities.
Portfolios help the participants to reflect on their way of learning and on Sustainable Development on a personal level. No one is going to look at it – it’s a personal (structured) diary. It will accompany the participant through their whole activity.
Open Badges is a digital approach for sharing badges for learning achievements, similar like the scout movement does it with textile badges on the scouts' uniforms.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2009: [www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/3054_en.pdf The shift to learning outcomes Policies and practices in Europe]; p. 30
- ↑ European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2009: [www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/3054_en.pdf The shift to learning outcomes Policies and practices in Europe]; p. 15
- ↑ European Commission: Learning Opportunities and Qualifications in Europe
- ↑ http://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/content/descriptors-page
- ↑ Deutscher Qualifizierungsrahmen: http://www.dqr.de/
Example: Civic Engagement Workshop
The education programme from Poland, Ukraine and Belarus worked with a portfolio based on EU youthpass. Participants registered a platform  and safed all their learning achievements related to specific competences described in EU and OECD documents in a tailor made portfolio. At the end of the programme, the YouthPasses were attached to the certificates.
Example: Captain's Log
An example for a structured competency-related portfolio tool which might be used in your training or training programme. More...